The phosphoric acid in soda drinks extracts calcium from the bones. No calcium means weaker bones, increasing the risk of fractures. A study found that women who drank soda beverages had lower bone density in the hips. Other research has also suggested that higher soda consumption is associated with more bone fractures. Research indicates that the effects of heavy alcohol use on bone cannot be reversed, even if a person stops drinking. Alcohol appears to have an effect on bone–forming cells, slowing bone turnover.