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“Infections and skin discolorations are much more common now,” Doherty says. Bacteria and fungi thrive in a sugary environment, which is why infections are fairly common. The main pathogenic mechanisms are: Hyperglycemic environment increasing the virulence of some pathogens; lower production of interleukins, which regulate immune responses; reduced chemotaxis and phagocytic activity; gastrointestinal and urinary dysmotility (when the muscles of the digestive system become impaired).